A Chat With Music Producer Galvin Patrick

With the growth of home recording technology (made affordable to everybody), many homosapiens find themselves venturing into music production. While some eventually pull multiple duties as studio owners, sound engineers, and even vocal coaches, the rest went on to work as music producers, producing award-winning songs.

Galvin Patrick is a Simanggang-based music producer. His passion for music developed at a very early age, from watching his mother playing the keyboard and eventually learned from her. In his teen, he picked up the guitar and thereon mastered the art of playing the keytar.

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The 30-year-old is also part of a church choir as a singer and a keyboardist. In his college days back in 2007, he actively performed in the local music scene as the keyboardist for independent bands like ‘Lateral Faction’ and ‘Solemn’.

Over the years, he naturally gravitated to compositions and has come to specialise in producing music, which he does in his bedroom using mainly FL Studio 12.

Galvin does not want to have a signature sound. He wants to be viewed as a more versatile music producer. On that ground, he has collaborated with and produced for a number of local and international artists on different music genres. This includes Paulo Santos, a singer from Brazil, Masia One, a rapper from Singapore and Melissa Francis, an Iban songstress from Sri Aman, Sarawak.

The music business is a nasty, cutthroat environment that will chew up and spit out those who are not well-ordered. And Galvin’s journey is also a rocky one. However, he is not allowing anything to slow him down. In fact, through his music, the producer has helped made the world a little better.

In 2011, he contributed one of his songs called Try To Save The World to  help the victims of earthquake and tsunami in Japan through ‘Indie Aid Japan’, a compilation album of 28 digital tracks.

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Below is a little bit more about the producer:

So Galvin, name 5 songs in your playlist.
The Chainsmokers & Coldplay – Something Just Like This
Ed Sheeran – The Shape of You
Major Lazer – Run Up (ft. PARTYNEXTDOOR & Nicki Minaj)
Kygo – It Ain’t Me (with Selena Gomez)
The Weeknd – Starboy (ft. Daft Punk)

Do you have a guilty music or entertainment pleasure?
I do. Mostly boy band pop songs from the 90s. I listen to the Spice Girls, Aqua and Madonna as well.

You play the keys, you write and sing a little bit, and you produce. But you consider yourself more of a producer, correct?
Yeah. But I have trouble defining myself actually, including my genres. I also do a little bit of this and that. What I do love is, capturing ideas and turning them into songs.

A lot of people have the notion of producers as self-taught, bedroom musicians. Are you one of those and do you have a formal musical education?
I never took any professional training or classes. Most of the time, DIY or self-studied. Although I wish I had taken a formal musical education or any sound engineering courses. It was a tough call due to a tight budget. Most of the courses were in KL or overseas during that time.

I see. Shall we talk about your journey of becoming a self-taught producer then?
Sure. Let me begin with that time when I asked my uncle to get me a pirated software CD. I was looking for the best audio converter, for ringtones – the one that can chop the audio and have all the basic functions. Then I saw the ‘Magix Music Maker’ software in that CD, tried it out and was amazed by the functions. I thought to myself that ‘this is a hidden gem’. I started using it, and get to know the basics from the HELP file. There was no YouTube tutorial during that time. A few years later, I discovered Sony Acid Music, then shifted to Reason, Cubase, Ableton Live, and finally using FL Studio till now. It is the best DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) so far for me! I bought the original copy a few years back.

How did your family react to the idea of you producing music?
All parents want the best for their children. For me, it was quite tough. They were not keen on the idea. But so far, they have been showing great support and help to get my music going.

Tell us about your studio. What DAW and some of the plug-ins that you use?
I have a small bedroom studio with MSI GE 2PE Apache Pro, installed with FL Studio 12.4, M-Audio USB interface, A Samson CO3U mic, Kurzweil monitors. I use some hardware instruments like Korg Electribe Music Production, Korg Kross Workstation keyboard, Korg RK-100s keytar, alongside some midi controllers like Akai MPK mini and M-Audio Trigger Finger Pro. Most of the plug-ins I use are from FL Studio itself, with Airdrums, Hybrid3 and my favourite plugin, Harmor VST.

Do you prefer analogue or digital sound production?
Both. But it depends on what kind of music I want to produce. I did record some guitars on some of my tracks.

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Your musical style has been defined as pop, hip hop and electronic dance. However, you probably listen to all kinds of music, correct? So what influences you to create your beats?
I listen to all, I love universal music. I would Google a song and find out who the producer is. I like producers like Kanye West, RedOne, Norman Cook, Max Martin, Diplo, Afrojack, Zedd, etc. But, overall, I love a mix of genres and experimenting them. That is one of the reasons I love to collaborate with everybody.

I see. Now, you were actively performing in the local music scene in 2007. Could you tell me more about how that started and your experience working with other musicians/bands?
I shared a demo I recorded back home with a friend (Bernie) in college. He then introduced me to his sister (Carrie) and talked about auditioning at ‘Rentak Juara RTM’. I was thrilled after listening to her voice during our band practice but we did not make it through. It was probably because she was way too young during that time. She was 14! Amazing talent with a BIG voice! But later, we performed together in metal-synth-rock bands called ‘Lateral Faction’ and ‘Solemn’. It was a great experience. I got to expose my talents to many different audiences in Kuching back then.

Besides that, you also formed your own project band – The 14th Project – in 2008 and released a demo with singles like ‘Goodbye to You’ and ‘Kesempurnaan Cinta’. Could you tell me more about that?
It was actually my project band before I proceed as a solo artist. I used Sony Acid Music to produce our tracks at that time. There were a lot of versions and demos of our songs. Maybe you can Google them. It was my earliest works that sounded really bad. I was so noob while producing those songs during that time!

I think you have gotten better. You were nominated in several music categories – ‘Lagu Borneo Paling Popular’, ‘Artis Solo / Band Borneo Paling Popular’, ‘Artis Harapan Borneo’ in Anugerah Carta Borneo Era 2011 for the song ‘Sang Mentari’, and ‘Best Electronica/Dance Song’ in VIMA 2011 music awards. And won the Anugerah Carta Borneo Era FM Sarawak (Best Lyrics) in 2012 for the song ‘Harapan’, and a Silver Award in VIMA (Voice of International Music Award) in 2014 (Best Genre Bender) for the song ‘Lagu Ini Hanya Untukmu’. How do you feel about these accomplishments?
It took me a while to believe all the hard work had paid off. I don’t really like to be praised as I don’t feel like I have achieved enough. There is more work to go for, but I do appreciate the support from everyone who has been pushing me forward.

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After the many collaborations and the awards that you have won, you stumbled into mainstream prominence which led to you being signed under Warner/Chappell Music (Malaysia) to compose original songs for other artists, globally. Are you still doing that?
Yes. I recently continued my contract for 3 more years. I am hoping to work and collaborate with more talents from around Malaysia and worldwide. WCM (Warner Chappell Music) is actually my publisher, to copyright and protect my works. That means I can still work with whoever as long as they agree to split the royalty percentage. Sulu Sarawak, a brilliant songwriter was the one who helped me to get to WCM back then, after so much struggling to look for a publisher. See, I cannot hide the truth. I have been the victim in so many stories. It is probably because they wanted money more than music, and I was tricked so many times – my music was not getting paid, worst; stolen.

That is the ugly truth. But you managed. Now, that aside, I am sure you learned a thing or two from that, like revenue and royalty statements?
Let me put it like this; imagine your music is your property with some houses on it. The houses are the radio stations. The people in them are the listeners. Do you think the houses and people are staying there for free? They will pay the rent to you if they want to stay there, and more if for a longer period. That is how it works. People pay you for ‘renting’ your music on the radio. You will get the royalties for how many times the song got played on air.

Right. This is something many must take note, indeed. So, what is your philosophy concerning your own work?
I would like to create something that I love and make you fall in love with it too. Like buying a perfect gift.

 

Do you ever find yourself struggling as a creative? In the sense of music direction.
For me, I do stuff during late nights and early in the morning where inspiration would usually come. Sometimes, I have to take a break by watching movies and play games like Dota 2. Whenever an idea pops up, I usually record it on the audio recording app on my phone. Every idea is precious. Sometimes it takes 2 years to develop a song. I had to change and update the sound every now and then to make it more complete.

Do you think about the relevance of your music before you make it?
I like to update myself with sound designing properties. It is not about the trending genre but the sound you should develop to make it ‘yours’.

Right. You have been around for a while. A decade at least. How do you see the current state of the local music industry? (Mainstream and independent.)
So far, we are still left behind with ideas. For example, vocal sampling. I did vocal sampling in my song called ‘Mencuba Lagi’ 5 years ago. Now you can listen to top radio hits with lots and lots of vocals sampling. Though digital sampling has been in existence since the 1960s.

That is very interesting. How do you feel about the popularity of your music today? 
Average. (I think) I did some pretty good songs with B-Heart and YMY, mostly well received. I did a collaboration with international artist like Masia One, on a track called Local Girls. She is an international rapper from Singapore/Canada and had collaborated with big names like Pharrell Williams and Major Lazer. I am not that popular yet. That is not really a concern. But I will get more songs out!

Do you think that social media has impacted your standing and presence within music?
I do. With today’s technology and thanks to the many smartphone users. The free marketing in promoting is a good move. Most of my songs had been downloaded and shared among friends through social media.

Do you feel like there is a lack of brotherhood within the local and independent music community?
The connection within the people. Yes. It is lacking because of the negative values. People do support you, but not forever. People change from fashion to food according to their personal preferences. The community cannot cope up with their interest so they often break up into smaller groups. However, there is a lot of bias in favour of helping others throughout the music scene. The truth is yet to be told. Someday.

You have collaborated with quite a number of rappers from the East and West Malaysia. What was your first memory of hip-hop?
I fall in love with hip hop music from Dr Dre’s work in Eminem’s songs since I bought the cassettes. Later on, from Sarawak itself, when I get to know some rappers and get into their community. I had so much fun knowing their music movement and get to collaborate on some songs with them.

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To date, who did you work with the most and what is the most challenging collaboration – with who/what song?
I think to work with Paulo Santos a singer from Brazil. I had to learn some Portuguese to communicate with him and his producer. We swap files through emails and WhatsApp as usually but this time, in Brazilian Portuguese! Even foreign language can’t stop me from collaborating with anyone! There are 5 songs altogether in Portuguese. You can check them out here.

Who do you really want to work with; producer and/or artist?
I wish to work with anyone from Interscope Records, like RedOne, Zedd, The Chainsmokers, or anyone from Malaysia as well. Not just big names, but the local artist as well!

What is something you have been trying to do differently as a beat maker/producer so far?
I am trying to create a Sarawak’s style beat, as a genre originally created by me. Well, you can listen to Cantik or Local Girls to get the idea.

You were quiet for a year or two. I assume you were working on something different, something new. Mind sharing?
I isolated myself from everyone for the past 2 years and was heavily involved with church activities. The politic in the local music scene was getting a bit too much for me to handle. I went through depression, I was not getting much from my career, my songs were rejected for many times, and the local music community neglected me for being different, for looking too far ahead. I was criticised for suggesting the copyrighting of music, for collaborating with more artist from West Malaysia than the East and for focusing too much on the hip hop genre. What they do not know is, I was doing all sorts of genres, and even producing songs for Melissa Francis (a famous Iban songstress) and with other Iban bands as well. My music was also tagged as ‘western food’. Once a local producer said to me ‘People don’t eat spaghetti here in Malaysia’. It was because of my ideas of making clubby styles of genres in the Malay language that does not suit the local listeners here in Malaysia.

You had a pretty rocky journey. But the fast-paced music industry always tests the boldest of creatives. What are your music goals?
I wish to develop a dynamic platform for musicians to collaborate, from anywhere to anyone, globally.

While most musicians/producers opt for commercial names, why did you decided not to do the same and use your real name instead?
For me, finding my true identity is important. Attaching music to my name is another thing. I was impressed with so many individuals who have so many stories behind their names, from Isaac Newton, Leonardo Da Vinci, Elvis Presley to Michael Jackson. Being the person behind my own name is like standing up for what I believe in, that is my dream, my passion, the journey within every song I ever created.

Do you have advice for aspiring artists?
The more you are struggling, the more success you will find, later. Dream big and work hard!
“Cantik” OUT NOW
iTunes: https://goo.gl/p33hWI
Apple Music: https://goo.gl/OFvDvg
Spotify: https://goo.gl/hTzBbE
Google Play: https://goo.gl/H35sLJ
Amazon: https://goo.gl/ACzObV
Deezer: https://goo.gl/5vZyJ4
Tidal: https://goo.gl/nZbrkx
Microsoft Groove: https://goo.gl/II7UKW
BandCamp: https://goo.gl/UWpYRA
YouTube: https://goo.gl/U5h9LL
Website: https://goo.gl/Q9QczA

Follow Galvin Patrick:
Facebook: https://goo.gl/EMmcMj
Twitter: https://goo.gl/bgQzmZ
Instagram: https://goo.gl/Kn9J6W
Spotify: https://goo.gl/Tfeuyi
Email: gmvinster@gmail.com

 

Miyo – Kuching Street Heroine

“Graffiti is a life force in a city, that says to every citizen, I’m alive, the city is alive. A city without graffiti is like a field without flowers.” UC Berkeley’s Professor Greg Niemeyer.

Graffiti, regardless of its form, makes a statement. And any notion of meaning or interpretation towards the art which has existed since prehistoric times is left to the perception of the viewer. However, people often consider it as vandalism.

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Graffiti is a time-intensive craft explored by highly skilled artists. And this art form is dominated by men. Contributions by the women have been particularly overlooked in many parts of the world. Despite pursuing their art under dangerous and illegal conditions, they do not receive the same respect as their male counterparts.

In Kuching, women are underrepresented in this subculture. One, however, is pushing the limit and challenging the stereotype. Miyo – real name Dewi Emilia binti Iskandar – is Kuching’s first female graffiti artist. In fact, the only one on the radar. Leaving her marks within the masculine spaces of street art, she astounds the traditional gender notions.

During my interview with her, she spoke passionately about the art of graffiti and her devotion to it. While some best-known female street artist has gone to great lengths to preserve their anonymity, she who sometimes goes by the moniker ‘The Black Cat‘, through this interview is doing the opposite.

Check out the interview below:

 

Could you describe your journey into becoming the first female graffiti artist in Kuching?

I used to create weird block letters. I was 13 at that time, and I had zero knowledge about graffiti. I was introduced to the art of graffiti in college by my lecturer. I started painting in 2007 on a plywood for a competition. I was a solo project.

I took a break and got back to it again in 2012 when I met my junior Dhiya Roslan who shares the same interest. I was not a skilled graffiti artist back then so, I picked up a thing or two from him.

We then officially kick-started our journey at an event called ‘Youthnity for Charity’ with some friends under the name RUSK Crew. There were Saddiq (Twenty-Fifth), Razi and Moody. After a while, we got along well and got Shafiq Fauzi (Shaff) on board as well to ‘bomb’ Kuching city.

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In 2013, they left to further their studies in KL. And I was left alone here. Fortunately, I had an offer to work at a bank so I had to go for training in KL for a week before sitting for the exam. When I was there, I saw a post on Jin Hackman’s Facebook page about a graffiti jam in KL. I contacted the curator of the event and joined a whole bunch of strangers to ‘bomb’ the walls in Jelatek. I was the only female writer there and the rest were pretty surprised. It is almost impossible to find a female graffiti writer in Malaysia.

After some unfortunate events in life, I stayed away from the scene for a bit. And got back to graffiti in March 2014. During that time, I received a couple of offers to paint on walls. I saw a great spot at the Bishopsgate’s arch in Carpenter Street and started to paint on the ‘virgin’ wall. I few friends tagged along and soon, Kuching city was filled with more and more graffiti.

Later, I began receiving some serious warnings from the Kuching North City Council (DBKU). I would fly to Singapore, KL and Miri whenever I get caught. But it was a great turning point when DBKU called me while I was in Singapore telling me that they want me to paint for the city. I took the offer and worked with an art community group that was recently established by D2K and I called the 9Lives. Ever since then, the public slowly accepts street art in Kuching and now more painters are coming out to ‘bomb’ the walls.

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I travel quite frequently since 2014 to Singapore, Indonesia and KL to leave my mark. I also took part in most of the graffiti events in Indonesia. Through that, I got to meet more great, incredible talents around the world.

2015 was also a great year as me and the 9Lives art group was approached by Petronas to paint under a program called ‘TanahAirku’ which made a big hit for Kuching painters.

In 2016, I won fourth place for a graffiti competition in Brunei against all guys and a girl (who got eliminated in the first round), created the first ever official graffiti workshop in Kuching with my old friends and got a spot under TEDx, exhibited some of my artworks and had a mini graffiti workshop session.

I have mostly been doing commission jobs to paint on walls and participated in quite a number of exhibitions under 9Lives. Now I focus on my work as an independent artist.

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It has been a tough journey with a rollercoaster ride from the streets to fitting in with an art group but nonetheless an amazing one; especially the ones that I have experienced in Indonesia and Brunei. I learned a lot through some graffiti friends in Indonesia, had my first ‘spraycation’ (spray-vacation) in Java from Jakarta to Tangerang to Yogyakarta to Bandung and back to Jakarta before flying back home, all by myself.

Indonesia is like my second home and I went there just to travel and paint on my own, met strangers then became good friends with some Indonesian’s finest like Poetry, Zaner, Cloze, Mone, Yogyakarta boys, Bandung writers and more. They certainly opened up my eyes to the real graffiti life and how it works.

Currently, I am given the opportunity to use a studio space at ChinaHouse, Kuching on my own until further notice; as a creative space.

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That is a very inspiring story! As a female pioneer of street art in Kuching, who or what inspired you?

There are a few people. My mum is my great source of inspiration; I saw her doing batik ‘canting’ since I was small. My daughter as my motivation to be the mum she would be proud of. My late boyfriend Yuki who has mad love for creative street stuff and also this great graffiti writer named MAD C from Germany who is just great at what she is doing.

Have you come across any other aspiring female graffiti artists in/from Kuching?

Not even a single soul, but that is yet to change. I just need to work harder to create interest in them, I guess. Some approached me for a bit of guidance but then disappeared in a flash. Graffiti is always known as a ‘male’ thing and that explains how it is almost impossible to get females to have passion in graffiti.

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Right. So, in your opinion, how is street art different than more formal kinds of contemporary art? Is it more or less important? Why?

Graffiti is the only art that cannot be bought or sold. Unless if it is a commission job, then, of course, graffiti writers are getting paid but loses the real essence of graffiti as an expression that is priceless. Real graffiti artists do not expose themselves in the public eyes. They are mostly anonymous, always working discreetly with artwork that shouts their name and character.

Graffiti or street art is as important as contemporary art where messages are conveyed through arts whether it is based solely on imagination or sensitive topics like politics or religion to create awareness. Most people perceive graffiti as vandalising properties because it made the streets look dirty but graffiti writers think the opposite.

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I believe you come from an artistic background. And your dad is a musician. How would you say this influenced you to become an artist yourself?

Both of my parents are creative beings who came from creative fathers. My dad’s father was a great self-taught ‘architect’ who built our kampong house from scratch and always been building and fixing broken stuff at home on his own. He also played ukulele in an orchestra band in Kuching back then. He is a big fan of keroncong music and he loves to write. From there, my dad might have been influenced by him and he himself is a great keyboardist, a composer and a sound engineer who has also been through many ‘rollercoaster rides’.

My mum’s dad is also a good singer who loves dancing to keroncong music. And he has the most beautiful handwriting I have ever seen. My mum used to be a singer and she loves art as much as I do. I grew up watching her doing her batik ‘canting’ but unfortunately, she had to stop doing what she loves because of her health condition while raising me as a single mother.

My parents made me think that it is possible for me to do what I love to do and be successful as long as I put my heart to it with lots of patience for my passion. There will be ups and downs but the most important thing is to keep on moving forward and create more as time goes by and guide others in the long run to create professional art community.

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How do your family and friends feel about your artwork?

Initially, my mum was not too keen on me leaving a fixed day job to be a full-time artist but somehow, I managed to open up her eyes when I got paid a lot for my projects. Her main concern is my daughter’s future because I am a single mother also. But with time, she began to understand that money is not everything and for as long as I keep on doing what I love wholeheartedly, I will always get her support. The rest of my family was also very sceptical about it in the beginning but like my mum, they are slowly adjusting to the fact that I am rebellious and a born artist at heart. Nonetheless, I get supports from friends and families even though not everything I created impresses them.

How do you go about getting walls for yourself and other street artists?

I take walks around town or cruise at times and with my ‘cat’s eyes,’ I would spot a wall that screams ‘paint me’ or abandoned buildings, walls under the bridge that catches my eyes. When the time is right, I will ‘bomb’ the spot either by myself or with some friends.


What is challenging or difficult about street art in Kuching?

It used to be thrilling which makes it exciting because we need to avoid from getting caught by the city council. Now it does not feel as adventurous as before. The city council has now accepted street art and allowed it to be filled in Kuching city.

I can tell you miss the thrill! And what do you find surprising about doing street art in Kuching?

The public and the government bodies seem to have adapted to having graffiti all around town. And most painted walls have become an attraction where locals and tourists would take photos for different occasions, from weddings to projects, to just a mere selfie shot.

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What kinds of reactions do you get as a female practising street art in Kuching? Are you threatened or do you feel frightened? And are you lauded?

As a female graffiti writer, I get criticised a lot. Some from the professional graffiti writers, some from peers who thinks that my art is ‘ugly’. At times it gets to me, but far from threatened. I felt challenged which makes me want to be better and surprise myself by proving them wrong.

I admire the rebel in you and the positivity. So, spray cans or brush?

Spray cans are my boyfriends.

What brands of spray paint are you using?

Anchor and Pylox are the cheaper options. Most of us use that. The rather expensive one would be Montana. That one last longer.

Making art is expensive. How much do you spend on spray paints an average?

About RM300, I think.

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What inspires your writing style?

My writing style is inspired by Hiragana & Katakana, Sarawakian natives elements, and also the Egyptian hieroglyphics.

What are your techniques and what inspired you to use them?

Just basic graffiti skills actually.

Can you tell me more about the Petronas street art project?

9Lives was approached by Kaki Seni Malaysia; they were looking for artists from Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching to be in the second edition of street art under TanahAirku; TanahAirku 3.0 Street Art Kuching. For the Kuching side, 9Lives was given 3 walls; 6 artists, 3 males and 3 females.

I collaborated with Twenty-Fifth for this and our artwork is called the Tree Edge in which his piece was a hornbill and a hibiscus while mine is the word ‘harmony’ on a ‘terabai’. It was one of my favourite wall-painting experience as it was the first time we painted using sky lift. We were literally brought to a higher perspective to paint which also symbolises a positive vibe.

I am blessed to be given a great opportunity to expose myself the legal way. And to work on it with an old friend made it even more special. We are equally proud to represent Sarawak for the project. That painting, I dedicate to all Sarawakians. May all of us continue to live in harmony.

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Are you or any other street artists mentoring young street artists in Kuching?

No doubt. Some do it on the streets, some do it through workshops.

Is there a strong interest in visual arts, or its history, in Kuching?

I believe so. As you can see the rapid growth in the Kuching art scene. The only thing that we need now is a ‘Balai Seni’ to display the work of our local artists (young and old). Since most visual arts nowadays got exposed through the ‘back door’ (shortcut) unlike the fine artist that has got to go through a lot of tedious and difficult process, the interest somehow shifts at times to modern contemporary art even though fine art is still considered as more valuable. We have art collectors and art lovers coming from all around the world or the locals who would support the local art scene by purchasing our artworks or give us commission jobs.

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Please tell me about your involvement with the street art community in Kuching.

I was definitely the pusher, the so-called pioneer who started the ‘trend’ for the rest to follow. Currently creating and pulling the ‘chosen ones’ to guide because I choose quality over quantity.

Do you think that more people in Kuching are more aware of contemporary art because of the social media?

Through social media and based on what they found in their travels.

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Are artists using their art as a way to voice their political feelings? And are you?

Some who has the balls and a great knowledge of the law and political matters, most definitely give their shots every now and then. It is not my mission, so I stay out of it.

Would you use street art to highlight women’s rights in Kuching in the near future?

Why not? Since I am always being discriminated for being ‘the only female’ in the scene, therefore, I have to work harder to reach certain standards. It would be great to show the public what we can achieve.

Is contemporary art in Kuching important? Why?

It is, to suit the future; to move forward without forgetting our roots.

Do you have any plans for exchanges with artists from outside to come to Kuching?

I am looking forward to hosting my friends from Indonesia mostly and the rest of my friends from all around the world for collaborations in Kuching.

Is it important for Malaysian street artists to have international recognition and opportunities? How could they be better supported?

Yes, and some of us have made it far to Dubai for a massive wall art project where they get paid a great amount of money. Also, some other projects through connections that were built from time to time through travels, research and such. Street art is known internationally and every country got their own great artist. Most probably through collaborations and sponsored travels, and more exposure I believe.

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Do you have any upcoming exhibitions or projects?

I have established in 2013, a hip-hop community called Tha Project. Now I am focusing on building it from scratch; through 7 elements of hip hop – emcee, bboy, graffiti, DJ, beatbox, basic knowledge of hip hop, skateboarding and maybe basketball in the near future? Watch this space jam!

Do you have any plans to collaborate with street artists from other states/countries?

Well, of course. Hint: CATFISH (a collaboration with a Filipino female street artist, Beni Art).

Tell me about your ambitions for the future. Where would you like to be in, say, five years?

I would love to be living either in Japan or in France (with my daughter) as a harmonic poet, graffiti writer and a hip-hop enthusiast. Inshaa Allah.

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Constantly in evolution, artists who believe in making changes will surely pave the way for more aspiring artists. Miyo is no different. She is paving the way – and back alleys – for even more female artists making graffiti, not only in Kuching but also perhaps, Sarawak. And Tha Project will surely be the next big thing many would hear in the near future.

I am definitely stoked to see more strong, smart and talented women in the predominantly male subculture. And who knows, this exposure may help Kuching’s graffiti movement to become launched into the rest of the world.

PS: ‘terabai’ is an Iban war shield.

Just SWAIV It; Smoothly

In the music scene – independent and mainstream – there is a lot more that makes the musicians similar than different. Although many come with a style that is rare and unique, most musicians combine a lot of ingredients and elements in their music.

Refused to be pigeon-holed into any single category, they take the elements of things that they like without trying to sound like anybody else. This is a challenge. Although it allows the musicians to improvise and combine the best of everything, there are so many bands out there that sound almost the same.

Swaiv may not have been a band name you have heard before. But after this, perhaps, you may hear the name over and over again. Previously known as Pearl & Rendall, Swaiv started off as an acoustic duo in 2010. Driven by their passion for music and personal experiences, Swaiv now consists of five young musicians with years of experience in many musical styles.

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(from left) Adrian Meringai (bass), Doboson Elisha (guitar), Meryll Pearl (vocals), Brian Chia (keys) and Rendall Ngumbang (drums).

The band recently performed at The Wayang, a bar located in the heart of Kuching City. The barstools were worn out, and the crowd was pleased. In between rehearsals for their upcoming gigs, at almost midnight, members of the multi-element band – equally inspired by classic tunes and today’s hit music – sat down for an interview with me.

Among other things including the band’s origins and musical influences, we also talked about their experience sharing a stage with Yuna, their thoughts on the independent music scene in Kuching and what is in store for the rest of 2017.

Check out my interview with the humble musicians below:

 

A band usually started with like-minded musicians getting together. Tell us how you got together to form Swaiv?

Brian: From what I understand, the band started out as “Pearl & Rendall”, the duo – this married couple here. It started out in 2010. And then, the story between the rest, I am not too sure. But personally, I, Brian Chia who plays keys was invited by Adrian Meringai, the bassist. Fortunately enough, we sustain this long and played quite a few gigs together. I must admit, it has been fun.

Rendall: Yup, it started off with both of us, we took part in RockERA. It was supposed to be a band thing but there were just two of us. So the judge said, he likes what he hears but it would be better if we come with a band because it sounded like… So empty. So we thought since Adrian at that time has started to pick up bass again, the three of us would do something. Later, we decided to form a band and Adrian looped in Brian. Dobo was always around, playing the shaker, of all things.

Brian: At that time we had a different line-up. Before Dobo came, there was another guy, his name is Nathaniel. He was on drums and percussions. And due to other commitments, we reshuffled. Dobo was the blessing in disguise – now, playing the guitar.

Rendall: We are the original band members. There were six of us, including former drummer, Charles Arthur. Now we are down to five.

 

Could you tell me more about yourself?

Brian: See, that is a question I dread. Aaah.. I would like to start with this. I am actually a Sabahan and I have been staying here in Kuching for 14 years. Uhmm.. I started piano when I was 5 and I really like the guitar. I took on guitar when I was 13 and decided to do music when I was 15. Thank God I managed to pull through and sort of continuing with it. I met not only these guys here, good musicians, but also people from the community. Initially, I was playing keys for Swaiv. But for certain gigs, I will play the guitar. And just this year, I started back on the keys again. And really, thus far, I think the best show that we have done together as Swaiv was for Yuna’s homecoming. That is by far, I think, the highlight of Swaiv. And definitely, more to come, I believe.

Rendall: I was always keen on music and I have been playing music since I was 12. I started off with guitar and played mostly rock songs. After that, I met Pearl, and I loved her voice. I thought her voice was suitable for jazz, blues, R&B or something and… After that, from rock, I started playing jazz. And since then I have been playing a lot of jazz and anything that I would say, close to jazz. Before Swaiv, I played for a couple of bands, mostly as a sessionist. As a drummer and guitarist. But when Swaiv first started, I played the guitar. We shuffled and now in 2017, I am the official drummer.

Pearl: I never expected to become an official musician because I did not anticipate what would ever be the means to do it. But I started singing when I was 15. And I played the guitar and started making YouTube covers. And I tried to be in a band as a vocalist but I was rejected because of my voice. See, I cannot sing high notes. It was demotivating, I stopped singing and just focus on playing the bass for a while. I was in two bands at that time. I played Muse and post-hardcore songs. Later on, my voice was accepted by some people and Swaiv happened.

Dobo: I started playing music since I was 10. I took a piano lesson, guitar lesson. And in high school, I started to join my friends playing rock music, and grindcore. And then when I was in college, I played acoustic. Right now… I played bass, guitar, a little bit of keys… Sort of… Everything. Before Swaiv, there was no band at all. But I have always had the interest in music.

Adrian: I first became involved with music when I was 13. It was all because of a friend who is now a tattoo artist. He invited me to his house, picked up his dad’s Fender guitar and taught me how to play All The Small Things by Blink 182. That was a good grounding for me. At that time, I had no idea how to play the guitar, I never touched a guitar before. So it all started from there and eventually, we jammed almost every week. I ended up being really into it. In college, I lost the interest as I was focusing on other stuff. But slowly, I got back to it again. Now, I am in Swaiv, playing bass.1378594_649267011856182_3184267878387894644_nThis, I have to know. Why the name Swaiv?

Pearl: We had been through so many names trying to work out what we could call our band. One day it just came to us. It rhymes with ‘wave’. We wanted a name that represents soothing music, smooth and cool vibes. So, we thought of the waves. And later from ‘waves’ to ‘Swaiv’. The soothing sound of the waves will always remind us of where we come from and why we are here.

 

You are sort of a blues and jazzy multi-element indie-pop band. Could you tell me about the biggest influences and inspirations for your music?

Brian: This is a very interesting question, I think. Because like what you heard early on, everybody comes from a different background. I think that is where it is a good challenge for everyone because everybody will put on their idea from different genres and elements. And that is where it sort of pushes each other like ‘Oh, this is new for me. So, I am gonna have to change my, whatever it is, like my playlist, I gotta listen to more of this stuff, that stuff to help the band’. I think that goes for everyone. So, definitely, there are some tunes that we do not really link on to but, for the band sake, it not only pushes us, it also helps everyone in general. Basically in terms of making us sounding versatile. We are mainly jazz-pop-ish group but as instrumentalists, we all enjoy playing other stuff as well.

 

That is for the band. What about personally? Who inspires you?

Brian: Rendall would have a very interesting story to tell.

Rendall: Mine would be John Otto, the drummer, and founding member of the nu metal band Limp Bizkit. But for Swaiv, I am inspired mostly by Jamie Cullum and Jason Mraz.

Pearl: Uhmm… I love Julie London. She has the sexiest voice ever. And Michael Buble too.

Dobo: Me, I would say… Dewa and Death Row Records, to name a few.

Adrian: Music in general, I would say Limp Bizkit. That is how I met Rendall actually. So Limp Bizkit, to Korn, to Nirvana. I also look up to Sam Rivers. The way he plays bass is kind of different. And from there I discovered Incubus’ former bassist – I forgot his name. After that, I met a friend who told me about this one guy and from there I focus more or playing the bass. I started playing more fusion style.

 

Who in the current music scene do you most admire most and why?

Rendall: Bruno Mars. Yeah!

 

Bruno Mars? His new music or the previous one?

Rendall: All of his music.

 

You have a few songs out. And I find that they are all very different from each other. Are you planning to release a full album in the near future?

Rendall: An album at the moment is quite big of a project to work on. I would say EP. We are working on an EP. Our first EP consist of 7 songs. Now we are going to come out with our second EP. Probably this year or next year. We will see.

Brian: In the near future, yeah.

Dobo: Hopefully by this year, if everything goes well.

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What was the creative process like when developing all your songs – music then lyric of the other way round? And who usually composes the songs.

Rendall: Sometimes lyric first then the music.

Pearl: Most of the time, music first.

Rendall: When it comes to composing a song, I think everyone contributes. Sometimes we will call it ‘Brian Song’, or ‘Dobo Song’. We ourselves influence and push each other to try and produce something new, something different.

 

And how did the writing process work? Is there a formula you employed, like starting with a guitar riff or title?

Rendall: Somebody either has a riff, or tune or something and we’ll be work from there. Someone will say, ‘Hey guys, I have this thing going on, check this out’ and we’ll slowly build it up from there into a more proper and clean composition. And after all that, we will… ‘Swaiv it!’

Brian: Yeah. During rehearsals, we would try out new arrangements. Everyone will throw in their ideas and improvise. We basically feed off each other.

 

You have a very deep sultry voice. Kind of whistle-y too. Do you do anything special to keep your voice in shape?

Pearl: Not that I know of. Haha. But when I perform, I just sing passionately, I guess. And you know, it just comes out naturally.

 

Right. You have been performing every once a week somewhere, correct? How did you get the gigs?

Brian: Hmm… A lot of the gigs are from previous exposures. It could be from personal friends.

Dobo: Recently, mostly are from friends.

Brian: Yeah. But I have to highlight this, Kuching is a close-knit city. Everybody knows each other, especially the music scene. So, we sort of look out for each other in a way that, say, if we really are not able to take the gig, we would sort of pass it to another group or something like that. Or vice versa.

 

What has the fan/audience feedback been like so far?

Rendall: It has been good, we are thankful for that. I think the best compliment we received is from Germany. They sent us an email and asked about our new projects. That, and a band from Italy.

 

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That is awesome. So what was the response to that – what did you guys say to them?

Rendall: We told them we had a pause moment for a while. At one point we hardly did anything.

Brian: We took a break for almost two years. We kickstarted in mid-2016. And when we received that email, we were in awe actually. They discovered us from Twitter, I think.

Rendall: I think it was because of Bandcamp. The exposure. To have the opportunity to meet the community on the global scale would be pretty awesome.

Brian: Well there is a fine line between compliments and… Just because you are my friend, I can help you. Things like that. Sometimes you just got to take it with a pinch of salt.

Pearl: There was this one time during Shades of Arts. We have not been playing for a few years and suddenly someone approached us – ‘Oh, I am a fan, and I have been waiting for Swaiv to play’. We’re thankful that you know, someone recognises us.

 

What has been your favourite live performance to give?

Rendall: I must say that it would be that time we opened for Yuna. We were the opening act for her gig here.

Brian: Yeah. I have to second that. That is definitely by far the coolest life experience. This was in 2012. And we played all our original songs.

 

Nice! So what did Yuna say to you guys?

Pearl: We did not really get to talk to her after the show, unfortunately. Well, only the guys.

Brian: Yuna was the highlight but I guess the whole experience in terms of sharing the same stage, personally and I think I can say this on behalf of everyone, it felt surreal. ‘Wow! This is really happening. We are sharing a stage with Yuna.’ This happened in December 2012 and we found out the next year, she just got signed with David Foster. So we were like, wow, we were the last group of local act, I believe, to be performing with Yuna. That was quite an honour.

Cool! And now she is known worldwide – a superstar! And that actually, is a really good platform to put yourself out there.

 

So, most of the time, do you perform your own songs, or covers as well?

Rendall: Both, actually.

 

What is your favourite cover?

Rendall: I think it would be Feeling Good and L.O.V.E. I mean, besides Pearl, we have another singer in Swaiv. Brian sings as well. For Pearl, Feeling Good. For Brian, it would be Turn Your Lights Down Low.

Brian: Really?! Thank you for this interview, I am learning a lot of new things about my band members! Oh wow!

 

I know you have SoundCloud and YouTube. So, what other platforms are you using to promote Swaiv and your songs?

Pearl: We have Reverbnation as well.

 

What do you think about Spotify and other streaming services? Are you planning to use that platform as well?

Pearl: Yeah, we wanted to. We are going to but, we are not sure how to go about it.

Oh, we can talk to someone who can help you with that.

 

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So, you have performed with Yuna, you have a couple of songs out, you have been playing gigs here and there. You are doing pretty good, I think. What else do you plan to get up to in 2017, besides the coming EP?

Dobo: More new stuff, definitely.

Rendall: We were just talking about this recently and we hope to play in one of the big festivals here in Sarawak.

Brian: For the band in general, I think we all want to get more new stuff out there. Grow our repertoire. We want to avoid recycling the same thing over and over. And we are going to get our tunes legalised, in a way. Get them copyrighted. That is going to take extra funds, so we are trying to sort that out.

 

There are a lot of talented people here in Kuching. But not many are out there. Not many have the opportunities to do so. Do you have any advice for aspiring independent musicians who may feel disillusioned or discouraged at times?

Rendall: There is a saying that goes ‘quality over quantity’. For me, with time, I found out there is one more important thing. That is progress. Sometimes people would look at the quality or the quantity. But they forgot progress. And that is the most important thing. You must progress, never stop. You must keep going. Keep moving until people notice you, recognise you and acknowledge you. Eventually, they will see your quality and quantity. Just be positive and keep progressing.

 

What is your personal opinion on the music scene in Kuching?

Brian: That is a very fragile sensitive question. But I think it is growing. Slowly but surely. And it boils down to our mentality and attitude towards the art – both the clients and the musicians. The music business is fragile, you just have to keep an open mind, be positive and be truthful to yourself and to people. Perhaps avoid jealousy, envy, and general intrigue, all the negative vibes.

 

Do you think you have a competition out there?

Adrian: You see, we are not competing with anyone. We are just doing our stuff. We constantly grow and we want to improve.

Brian: I really like the question. Damn. Uhmm.. I think the competition is really within ourselves. Our competition is our achievement. If the benchmark for 1026 is this, then 2017 has to be higher. It’s part of the progress for the band.

 

So who have you been collaborating with, here in and from Kuching?

Pearl: rhymebo0k, Saufi, Nutty Slicc…

Rendall: Soon, there will be a surprise. Wait for it.

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Now, to enlighten you, check out my favourite song from the band HERE! This was from 3 years ago, but I still love it! RED is one of my go-to jam in my smoke-filled, dimly lit room.

PS: Photos were taken from the band’s Facebook page. I do not own the credit. This was an audio/video interview.

Being Sarawakian: Arakki?!

I have been going to my parents’ farm in the hills. My mum is currently busy growing peppercorns and she is very excited about it. There are other fruits and vegetables too on the farm. The pineapples are growing like mushrooms. According to my mum, they have not been buying pineapples from the market for a few months now. Just yesterday, we had her mushrooms for dinner.

When my paternal grandparents were still very active, their source of income comes from their farm. In their remote hill farms, they used to grow hill rice, maize and sugarcane as staples, and pepper, cocoa, lemon, pomelo and rubber for cash. In fact, they used to earned thousands within a week just from the selling of their durians. Of course, it was not easy for them but they enjoyed and miss it dearly. Once in a while now, my parents would bring them to visit the farms.

Their other source of income used to also be the rice wine, also known as tuak. Bidayuhs are Borneo’s master tuak makers and my grandparents used to make and sell them, usually nearing the festive seasons. They also made tuak tebu (sugarcane wine) and I have once tasted tuak apple (apple cider).

Tuak is part of Borneo native’s culture and it is used in social and ritual events of the Dayak tribes. During Gawai, tuak is offered to the spirits as part of the items used in blessing ceremonies such as the Harvest Festival. The culture of making tuak however, is slowly dying out and most of the current generations are either not interested in learning or they feel it is impossible to get it right. Plus, tuak is becoming rare now due to the availability of many modern alcohol beverages. Beers, wines and liquors are also increasingly affordable.

Bidayuhs also use distilling methods to make arak tonok, a kind of moonshine. While both tuak and arak tonok is part of our culture, alcoholism and drunkenness have also become a serious social issue among the Dayaks today. Not only adult, the youngsters are also heavily engaged in the habit of drinking; especially the moonshine.

Today, evenings and weekends, no matter what the occasion, whether there is any or not, is the time to get high and drunk. I am a drinker myself, but I do find indulging excessively is absolutely unnecessary. From time wastage to the destroying of physical and mental health, alcoholism will eventually lead to death. More than 10 years ago, one of our relatives who was close to my dad passed away from the habitual over-drinking of alcohol across all ranges.

I personally prefer tuak tebu over everything else and find arak to be too strong. I can take tuak any time of the day, but no moonshine for me.

Being Sarawakian: The Tattoos

Tattoos have served in many various and diverse cultures since prehistoric times. Most commonly as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, and marks of fertility, among others.

Throughout much of the 20th century, getting inked intimidated people and brought about many negative stereotypes in mainstream culture. Those sporting tattoos were often considered social deviants and outcasts. There was a degree of uncomfortableness and employment opportunities were also perceived to be negatively affected.

However, the culture experienced a resurgence in the 21st century in many parts of the world. And more people are slowly embracing the culture. As tattooing increasingly enters the mainstream culture, walking into a corporate office with a full sleeved tattoo is in fact, very common nowadays. I personally experienced it myself for the past 5 years, thanks to my democratic workplaces and better awareness about tattoos. Although I would cover them during certain occasion and when meeting the VIPs.

Despite it being a Muslim country, judging by the number of tattoo conventions held across Malaysia, it was evident that a growing number of Malaysians seem to be more welcoming towards the idea of having tattoos. The growth in the culture for the past decade has also seen an influx of new professional tattoo artists into the industry, especially in Sarawak. Some artists are renowned for their skills in doing traditional, hand tapped tattoos. And some, with their artistic talent, are building their portfolios coupled with the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for body tattooing.

Traditional tattoos are a significant part of Sarawak’s rich history. Borneo Traditional Tattooing is something that is symbolic to the lifestyle and daily practices of the native tribes in Borneo; mainly the Iban community. And the fascinating thing about traditional Iban tattoos lies in the process and its tools. The traditional tattooing process is a rather intricate one. The tattoo craftsmen usually make their tools for tattooing from bamboo poles and the ink is either from soot or powdered charcoal. Designs were carved on a block of wood that is smeared with ink and then printed onto the body. Once a design is in place, the skin is punctured with bamboo needles dipped in ink. It is said that a hand-tapped tattoo can last and look its best even after years of being exposed to harsh weather conditions.

While it is a common practice amongst many indigenous groups in Borneo, the specific designs and cultural associations vary from group to group. And each design and placement refer to a particular meaning and significance. On men, these tattoos are seen as a symbol of bravery, while women see them as a beauty enhancer. And the women often have the most impressive tattoos. Some are associated with weaving ceremonial garments that are used to hold freshly severed heads from headhunting trips. The headman’s daughter would have her arms, hands and legs completely covered in fine tattoos.

With nature as its main focus, the most basic type of Iban tattoo is the bunga terung design, mostly tattooed at the shoulders, just by the edge of the collarbone. It is usually the first tattoo that a man gets before going on his bejalai or coming-of-age ceremony. Many of my Iban and non-Iban friends have this on them. According to my Iban friend, the tattoo is believed to help strengthen the wearer during his bejalai journey into the woods. During the journey, the young man is said to gain his fame and wealth by helping out other neighbouring Iban communities and the favours would be gifted with tattoos.

Borneo Traditional Tattooing disappeared in the 1960s as many people in Borneo converted to Christianity. For the past decade, however, a lot of the younger people, in their effort to preserve and promote their culture, looked back and many of them had now started getting these traditional tattoos done again – as a tattoo artist and a tattoo wearer.

On a separate note, I have had a fascination with the art of tattooing since I was a kid. And faced the needle myself for the first time in 2009. My first tattoo is a musical note on the slightly lower back of my right shoulder. I often forget it is there until I’m in my towel and someone comments on it. My friend Chris and I were supposed to get our tattoos together, spontaneously, but he had his a few days later.

A tattoo virgin at that time, I thought it was going to hurt. And the funny thing is, I hate needles. Apparently, it did not hurt and on my body as of now, I have 15 individual tattoos. However, I don’t consider that I have that many as I like to combine them. And behind each marking, there is a story. My tattoos represent the many anecdotes of my life.

My most recent tattoo is the Amaryllis flower. Well, three of them together, as per design by my tattoo artist.

Back in the Victorian Time, the amaryllis flowers were given as a gift to writers, artists, and poets to show gratitude as well as respect for their work.

While I consider myself as a writer, I can’t say a good one. But, for 5 years I was employed as a professional writer who has developed and produced content for education and marketing purposes. And I enjoy writing. I have been writing since my first writing class in school. I write short stories, poems, songs and random stuff. Although after many years now, I still constantly feel I lack a bridge between my thoughts and my words that make my writing feels average. And I judge my own writing. I tend to get worked out by every single word.

Sometimes I feel like I am a better poet than I am a writer. When I feel very strongly about something, whatever that is related to it would just beg me to write it down into a poem. Sometimes a series of the same thing. I am not a grammar freak. In fact, my grammar sucks and that makes my writing probably not a reliable text grammatically and figuratively. Just PROBABLY.

So being a writer, a poet and a musician myself, I receive praises, constructive feedbacks as well as both gratitude and respect from my friends. It gives me a sense of pride and the encouragement to just keep writing. My friend Charmaine even said that I live to write. So the recent event where one of my poems were featured on a website and received so many views, that had provoked me to get the amaryllis flowers tattooed on my forearm. There are also other reasons, but that is the main one.

The artist responsible behind this tattoo is Ray, from Kota Kinabalu.

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Ray was a guest tattoo artist at BlackOut Tattoo Studio in Kuching where my usual tattoo artist Jona Vayne work his magic.

Jona is one of the tattoo artists here that I frequently go to. He basically did all the tattoos on my arms, except the amaryllis. The guy has been around for a few years now and he has been producing really excellent artwork across all tattoo genres. His creativity and passion for arts, however, is not limited to tattooing. I am going to write more about him in my future post. Stay tuned.

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Being Sarawakian: We No Longer Behead

Here is one of the common conversations I had with the people who met me for the first time when I was in Peninsula.

“So where are you from?”

“I’m from Kuching.”

“That’s in KK?”

“No, that’s in Sarawak. KK is in Sabah.”

“Aah.. So, you’re from the headhunter’s tribe? Do they still hunt heads there?”

“Uhh.. No, we don’t do that anymore.”

I do not know much about my own tribe except the basic knowledge the whole world would have. Let alone, about other tribes and their history. But it is offensive when a conversation like this takes place in the 21st century.

However, I don’t blame people for immediately associating the word “headhunting” with Sarawakians. They are not entirely wrong. After all, Sarawak is the land of headhunters.

The practice of collecting heads was widespread among the Dayaks – the indigenous, non-Malay inhabitants of Borneo. And the Iban tribes are reputed to be the most formidable headhunters on the island.

I am a Bidayuh; a tribe known as “Land Dayak”, a name that was first used during the period of the White Rajah of Sarawak. We are the second largest Dayak ethnic group in Sarawak after the Iban (Sea Dayak).

My parents are from two different geographical areas. While my dad is from the Penrissen district, my mum is from Bau. And they both speaks two different but related dialects. My dad, Bisitang and mum, Bijagoi. One is much softer than the other. But the Bidayuhs are generally very softspoken people.

However, they are also known for their warrior audacity. The men are proud and strong. In a war, a Bidayuh man’s prowess and status are determined by the heads he collected – the more heads, the higher his rank.

And what happened to the heads, you asked?

Well, the brains were carefully extracted through the nostrils. And then the heads were skinned, placed in rattan nets and smoked over fires. I still can’t get this image out of my head. The skulls then, were stored in their baruk, a roundhouse that rises about 1.5 metres off the ground.

Curious about the history of headhunting, I had a conversation with my dad about it. He could not give me the kind of explanation I wanted on the subject, though. But according to him, back in the days, the men would go out for a headhunting expedition once in four (4) months. The first to bring home a head is considered a hero. Sounds to me like headhunting is a form of sport. And sort of… Evil?

But our ancestors were animists, and the skulls were said to possess powerful forms of magic. Since the ideas of manhood were also bound up with the practice, the skulls were considered trophies of manhood and bravery.

Dad also spoke about tribal wars. Our ancestors’ headhunting skills played no small part to their aggressive culture of war against other tribes. When there is the need of territorial expansion due to overpopulation, there is the need to intrude on lands belonging to other tribes. Thus, there is the need for brutal confrontation as it was the only means of survival. And during that time, while the Bidayuh men were killed, the Bidayuh women were taken and raped (a common scenario in any wars).

But our headhunting days has long gone. It was outlawed in the 19th century through the efforts of the colonial Dutch. Conversion to Christianity or Islam had also suppressed the practice. And our humility and peace-loving reputation had opposed our headhunting past.